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Soruların İncelenmesi

 

Soruların İncelenmesi

Dilbilgisi

  • Önce seçeneklere bakın ve eğer seçenekler kısa ise tümcede eksik olan bölümün ne olduğunu görün. Seçenekler uzun ise zaman kaybetmeyin. Soru tümcesini okuyun.
  • Soru tümcesini okurken, tümcenin temel unsurlarını (Ö+Y+N ve ana tümce ile yan tümce) belirlemeye çalışın. Bunlar dışında kalan ve tümcenin uzunluğuna katkı sağlamaktan başka bir işlevi olmayan unsurları ayıklayın.

1. Ö+Y+N yapılı tümcede eksik unsur.

Basit tümcede:

Tümcenin Ö+Y+N yapısını kontrol edin. Basit tümce zannettiğiniz bir yapı bileşik tümce olabilir.


A. Eksik olan özne ise:

Yüklemin tekil ya da çoğul olmasından yola çıkarak tekil ya da çoğul özne arayın;

..... is an animal of great concern to scientists.

A) That the giraffe 
B) The giraffe
C) These giraffes 
D) Giraffes
E) Those giraffes

Nesnedeki it(s), his her, him, them.. sözcükleri yolu ile özneyi saptamaya çalışın;

..... will always be remembered for its sinking on her maiden voyage.

A) This ship 
B) That the ship
C) These ships 
D) Ships
E) Those ships

Tümcede, özneyi niteleyen unsurları göz önünde bulundurun:

Determiner: Article (a, an, the), demonstrative (this, that, these, those), possessive adjective (my, our, your, his, her, its, their)

Adjective: Common (old, yellow, ..), participal (interesting, bored, ..), nominal (plactic, glass, ..)

Quantifier: Cardinal number (one, two, ..), ordinal number (first, second, ..), indefinite quantifier (some, many, few, ..)

Adverb: Adverb of approximation (almost, about, nearly, ..), adverb of strength and intensity (completely, extremely, quite, rather, very, ..)


B. Eksik olan nesne ise:

 
Öznenin tekil ya da çoğul olmasına göre it(s), his,her, him, them, .. arayın;
Tüm tümce bağlamını inceleyin ve tamamen saçma gözüken seçenekleri eleyin;
Yukarıda değinilen (a) adı nitelendiren yapılara dikkat edin.


C. Eksik olan yüklem ise:

Öznenin tekil ya da çoğul olmasına göre yüklemi saptamaya çalışın;
Öznenin animate (canlı) ya da inanimate (cansız) olmasına göre yüklemin etken mi yoksa edilgen mi olması gerektiğini belirleyin;
Tümce içindeki zaman gösteren yapılar yardımı ile yüklemin hangi zamanda olması gerektiğini saptayın.

Bileşik tümcede

Tümce Tamamlama ile ilgili bölüme bakın.

2. Tümcede clause marker eksik.
 

He was terribly disappointed with the decision of the committee, ..... he gave in his resignation.

A) since 
B) however
C) yet 
D) in case
E) so

Bileşik tümce yapıları çok iyi tanımanız gerekmekte.
Seçenekleri yok varsayarak tümcenin anlamını çıkarmaya çalışın. Tümcenin zaman, neden, sonuç, kıyas gibi bileşik tümce yapılardan hangisine ait olduğunu bulun.
Seçenekler içinde, saptadığınız bileşik tümce türüne ait yapıları arayın.
Seçenekler içinde uygun olan birden fazla yapı varsa (although ve despite gibi), yan tümceyi inceleyin. Seçeneklerden hangisinin yan tümceye uygun olduğunu belirleyin.

3. Tümcede phrase oluşturan yapı eksik
 

..... acute shortages of food in many countries, the delegates voted to increase programmes and services in weather reporting and research needed for greater production of foodstuffs.

A) By way of 
B) Contrary to
C) According to 
D) In view of
E) As far as

Ana tümce ile yan tümce arasında ne tür bir ilişki olduğunu belirleyin: karşıtlık, neden, sonuç, ..
Seçenekleri eleyin.
Birden fazla seçenek kalırsa, önce yapı, sonra da anlam açısından uygunluğunu denetleyin.

4. Paralel yapıda eksik unsur.
 

..... you can get the experiments completed ..... you can get the report written up.

A) As soon/as soon 
B) The sooner/the sooner
C) The sooner/sooner 
D) As soon/The sooner
E) Sooner/the soonest

Tümcenin bir bileşik tümce olduğundan emin olun. Bunun için de bileşik tümce yapıları çok iyi tanımanız gerekmekte.
Bu tür sorularda seçenekler her ne kadar birbirlerine çok benzer gibi görünse de, bazıları tümceye oturtulması dilbilgisi açısından hatalı olmaktadır. Bu şekilde seçenekleri eleyin.
Uygun seçeneği bulmakta zorlanırsanız, seçenekleri tümcenin genel anlamına uygunlukları, ana ve yan tümcelerin her birine uygunlukları açısından sınayın.

5. Tümcede tag question eksik
 

Prior to taking up this appointment, he used to work for the government, .....?

A) wasn't he 
B) did he use
C) didn't he 
D) did he
E) didn't he use

Tümcenin ana yükleminin hangi zaman yapısını ya da modal verb yapýyý içerdiğini saptayın.
Tümcenin öznesinin tekil mi yoksa çoğul mu olduğunu saptayın.

Some of the articles in the Criminal Code will have to be amended, .....?

A) will they 
B) won't they
C) haven't they 
D) won't it
E) will it

Tümcenin, tag question açısından istisna oluşturacak yapıları içerip içermediğini inceleyin. Bu yapıları Dilbilgisi Açıklamaları içinde bulabilirsiniz.

6. Diğer yapılar

a. Zamanlar
 

At tomorrow's concert the orchestra ..... by Carl von Braun.

A) will have conducted 
B) will conduct
C) has been conducted 
D) will be conducted
E) is going to conduct

Zaman belirten yapılara dikkat edin (örnek soruda tomorrow sözcüğü).
Bileşik tümcede zaman uyumuna dikkat edin. Bu konu ile ilgili notlar Dilbilgisi Açıklamaları içinde.
Tümcenin etken/edilgen yapısını inceleyin (örnek soruda by sözcüğü edilgen olması gerektiğini göstermekte.)

b. Edilgen
 

You ..... pleased to learn that Mr Lawson ..... chairman.

A) have been/appointed
B) will be/has been appointed
C) are/is appointing
D) have been/was appointed
E) were/appointed

Yukarıda a. Zamanlar için verilen notları inceleyin.

c. Ettirgen
 

Do you think you will be able to ..... him to lend his car?

A) get 
B) have
C) let 
D) permit
E) allow

Dilbilgisi Açıklamaları içinde işlenen ettirgen yapıları iyi bilmeniz gerekmekte.
Bu tür sorularda ettirgen yapının geçmekte olduğunu hemen farketmek her zaman için kolay olmamakta. Tümcede asýl yüklem dışındaki eylem yapıların (örnek tümcede lend) past participle (V3) ya da infinitive (to+V) şeklinde kullanılmaları söz konusu ise, dikkatli olun! Karşınızda bir ettirgen yapı bulunabilir.


DİLBİLGİSİ - ÖRNEK SORULAR

Aşağıda örnek olarak 32 dilbilgisi sorusu verildi.

Yanıtlar bütün sorulardan sonra gelmekte.

  1. The very idea of establishing a literary "canon" has become ..... controversial that the people running the Library of America have wisely avoided using the term.

A) too
B) as
C) such
D) so
E) more

  1. Had they apologized for deliberately overcharging me, I ..... a complaint with the Consumers' Rights Office.

A) will not have filed
B) may not have filed
C) would not have filed
D) was not filing
E) may not file

  1. He is diplomatically qualified ..... to negotiate for a mutual reduction of the armed forces in the region.

A) enough
B) though
C) as well as
D) not only
E) also

  1. As he was not satisfied with the contents of the document, he declined to sign it, and none of the members attempted to persuade him to, ..... .

A) also
B) too
C) as well
D) either
E) yet

  1. They haven't met for twelve years or more, but I understand they still write to ..... at regular intervals.

A) the other
B) each other
C) themselves
D) the others
E) one other

  1. Economic recession and rising unemployment, coupled ..... continued increases ..... retail food prices, have curtailed consumption.

A) with / in
B) through / through
C) by / for
D) at / about
E) within / over

  1. In Ethiopia, primitive farming practices and uncontrolled clearing of natural vegetation have transformed much of the country's highlands ..... bare landscapes, all but destroyed ..... erosion.

A) above / of
B) for / with
C) into / by
D) in / under
E) to / at

  1. When the relief workers reached the scene of the disaster, they immediately began to help ..... who could do nothing for ..... .

A) that / himself
B) them / their
C) those / themselves
D) these / themselves
E) us / yourself

  1. Under these circumstances he should never have been allowed to take charge of the operation ..... he was the most senior of the officers available.

A) whyever
B) whether
C) even though
D) whenever
E) so that

  1. Why can't you admit that, ..... hard he works, he will never manage to achieve what his elder brother has achieved?

A) unless
B) whatsoever
C) though
D) whenever
E) however

  1. Clifford Goertz, probably ..... famous anthropologist in the world today, has revolutionized the way anthropology is taught on campuses.

A) more
B) most
C) the most
D) the more
E) a

  1. Many more people would doubtless have attended the debate ..... they had known in advance who the principal speakers were.

A) if only
B) while
C) since
D) after
E) until

  1. In recent decades the efficiency of the United Nations ..... by a growing number of countries.

A) will have been questioned
B) was questioned
C) had been questioned
D) would be questioned
E) has been questioned

  1. It seems likely that by the end of the week, the costs involved in the construction of the bridge ..... by the Ministry.

A) would have been announced
B) would be announced
C) are being announced
D) will have been announced
E) have been announced

  1. They set up a liaison office in East Africa for marketing their goods but now they wish they ..... so.

A) had not done
B) have not done
C) would not do
D) would not have done
E) never do

  1. I was forced to admit that there was a drop in sales towards the end of the year ..... he had predicted.

A) such as
B) even so
C) in case
D) just as
E) so far as

  1. We ..... no problems whatsoever with the dam since it ..... forty years ago.

A) had / has been constructed
B) have had / was constructed
C) had had / had been constructed
D) are having / is constructed
E) were having / was being constructed

  1. It was foolish of me to turn down such an offer; in fact ..... I think about it ..... I regret it.

A) as much / so much more
B) the more / as much
C) much / as much
D) the most / so much
E) the more / the more

  1. The scheme has been ..... consideration for a long time now, but I doubt whether it will ever be put ..... effect.

A) under / into
B) within / through
C) for / to
D) in / off
E) over / over

  1. It was ..... his efforts that the two sides finally agreed to hold talks ..... the principle of economic cooperation.

A) by / through
B) over / for
C) through/ on
D) with / at
E) without / from

  1. There ..... many efforts to eradicate racism, but very little success ..... .

A) were / had been achieved
B) had been / has been achieved
C) have been / has been achieved
D) are / was achieved
E) may be / will have been achieved

  1. Evaporation ..... the process by which a solid or liquid ..... into vapour by heat.

A) had been / resolved
B) was / had resolved
C) has been / was resolved
D) may be / has resolved
E) is / is resolved

  1. The Etruscans, who ..... a great part of Italy about 900 B.C., ..... from Asia Minor.

A) had colonized / originally came
B) colonized / had originally come
C) were colonized / have originally come
D) have colonized / originally come
E) were colonizing / might originally come

  1. The orders were that we ..... the area within hours to prevent further loss of life.

A) had evacuated
B) have to evacuate
C) will have evacuated
D) had to evacuate
E) shall have to evacuate

  1. He ..... his paper by saying that the entire history of the human race ..... by transfers of cultural and technological advance from one civilization to another.

A) concluded / had been marked
B) concludes / would have been marked
C) has concluded / was marked
D) had concluded / is marked
E) will conclude / was being marked

  1. The advance in the steel industry has been marked ..... a progressive increase ..... size, complexity and capital outlay.

A) at / of
B) with / to
C) over / from
D) by / in
E) under / through

  1. The answer to the question ..... great art can exist independently of religion will, ..... depends on society's moral and aesthetic values.

A) what / in the same way
B) even if / in due course
C) whether / to a large extent
D) so that / in short
E) since / now and again

  1. Thailand has lost half of its forests ..... its population has ..... doubled in recent decades.

A) as / more than
B) just as / mostly
C) so as / soon
D) in case / quite
E) because of / much

  1. Holding a yellow umbrella in his hand he said he didn't know ..... it was, and added that it was not ......

A) which / him
B) whose / his
C) who / her
D) whom / us
E) that / theirs

  1. The Deputy Prime Minister announced today that it was ..... early to propose amendments in the legislation concerning industrial relations.

A) as well as
B) just so
C) just as
D) as soon as
E) as yet too

  1. Activists are these in a political movement who insist on taking active steps towards their objectives, ..... merely putting forward an action programme.

A) in order to
B) rather than
C) as far as
D) in that
E) so long as

  1. If our delegates hadn't shown themselves willing to come to terms, those from other countries ..... .

A) would be, too
B) wouldn't have, either
C) had not, either
D) have had, too
E) would have, too


YANITLAR

  1. The very idea of establishing a literary "canon" has become so controversial that the people running the Library of America have wisely avoided using the term.

so + adjective + that. Yanıt D.

  1. Had they apologized for deliberately overcharging me, I would not have filed a complaint with the Consumers' Rights Office.

Third condition,devrik yapı. Yanıt C.

  1. He is diplomatically qualified enough to negotiate for a mutual reduction of the armed forces in the region.

adjective + enough to + V. Yanıt A.

  1. As he was not satisfied with the contents of the document, he declined to sign it, and none of the members attempted to persuade him to, either.

Olumsuz özne (None of the members). Yanıt D.

  1. They haven't met for twelve years or more, but I understand they still write to each other at regular intervals.

Tümcenin öznesi çoğul. A seçeneği tekile değiniyor; C seçeneği kendilerine, D seçeneği de başka kişilere yazdıklarını anlatıyor; E seçeneğinin one other + noun olması gerekir. Yanıt B.

  1. Economic recession and rising unemployment, coupled with continued increases in retail food prices, have curtailed consumption.

couple + with; increase + in + nesne. Yanıt A. increase + in yapısı 26. soruda da geçmekte.

  1. In Ethiopia, primitive farming practices and uncontrolled clearing of natural vegetation have transformed much of the country's highlands into bare landscapes, all but destroyed by erosion.

transform + into. Yanıt C.

  1. When the relief workers reached the scene of the disaster, they immediately began to help those who could do nothing for themselves.

Boşluk sonrasındaki who sözcüğünden ötürü boşluğa insan(lar)a yönelik bir sözcük gelmeli. A seçeneğinde that + man/woman/.. olmalıydı; B seçeneğinde their yanlış çünkü iyelik taşıyor; D en yakın çeldirici, ancak these sözcüğü şu an yakınlarda olanları ("bunlar") gösterir, oysa olay çoktan bitmiş; E seçeneğinde us ve themself uyumsuz. Yanıt C

  1. Under these circumstances he should never have been allowed to take charge of the operation even though he was the most senior of the officers available.

"He should never have been allowed ... he was the the most senior officer". Çelişkili durum anlatılmakta. Yanıt C.

  1. Why can't you admit that, however hard he works, he will never manage to achieve what his elder brother has achieved?

however + adjective/adverb + tümce. Yanıt E.

  1. Clifford Goertz, probably the most famous anthropologist in the world today, has revolutionized the way anthropology is taught on campuses.

Bir başka kişi ile kıyaslama yok. Yanıt C.

  1. Many more people would doubtless have attended the debate if only they had known in advance who the principal speakers were.

Third condition. Yanıt A.

  1. In recent decades the efficiency of the United Nations has been questioned by a growing number of countries.

Tümcedeki recent sözcüğünden ötürü present perfect. Yanıt E.

  1. It seems likely that by the end of the week, the costs involved in the construction of the bridge will have been announced by the Ministry.

Tümcedeki by zaman gösteren sözcüğünden ötürü ana tümcede past perfect veya future perfect olmalı. Yanıt D.

  1. They set up a liaison office in East Africa for marketing their goods but now they wish they had not done so.

Pişmanlık. Third condition gibi olmalı. Yanıt A.

  1. I was forced to admit that there was a drop in sales towards the end of the year just as he had predicted.

En yakın çeldirici E. Yanıt D (Similarity Clause)

  1. We have had no problems whatsoever with the dam since it was constructed forty years ago.

since + simple past; tümce present perfect. Yanıt B.

  1. It was foolish of me to turn down such an offer; in fact the more I think about it the more I regret it.

Üzerinde düşünme arttıkça pişmanlık artmakta. Birbirine bağımlı kıyas. Yanıt E.

  1. The scheme has been under consideration for a long time now, but I doubt whether it will ever be put into effect.

put + into + effect. Yanıt A.

  1. It was through his efforts that the two sides finally agreed to hold talks on the principle of economic cooperation.

İlk boşluk açısından en yakın çeldirici A, yanıt ise C.

  1. There has been many efforts to eradicate racism, but very little success has been achieved.

Tartışmalı bir soru. Zaman gösteren hiç bir yapı olmadığı için A seçeneğinin ve C seçeneğinin doğru olduklarını söyleyebilirsiniz. Dilbilgisel açıdan bu doğru olsa bile anlamsal olarak C doğru yanıt. A seçeneğinde ikinci bölümün past perfect olması hatalı. Burada was achieved gerekirdi, çünkü önce çaba sarfedildi, sonra başarısızlık geldi.

  1. Evaporation is the process by which a solid or liquid is resolved into vapour by heat.

Herşeyden önce, by heat yapısından ötürü edilgen yapı gerekir. Seçenekler içinde bir tek C ve E seçeneklerinde edilgen var. Tümce doğal, her zaman gerçekleşebilecek bir durumu anlattığı için yanıt E.

  1. The Etruscans, who colonized a great part of Italy about 900 B.C., had originally come from Asia Minor.

Etrüskler önce Asia Minor'dan (=Anadolu) geldiler, sonra Italya'nın büyük bir bölümünü kolonileştirdiler. Yanıt B.

  1. The orders were that we had to evacuate the area within hours to prevent further loss of life.

Bir noun clause tümce. Ana yüklem simple past olduğu için boşluğa gelecek eylemin de past olması gerekir. B, C ve E seçenekleri elenir. Tümcenin öznesi emir ve bir zorunluluk durumu da D seçeneğinde var.

  1. He concluded his paper by saying that the entire history of the human race had been marked by transfers of cultural and technological advance from one civilization to another.

Tümce bir noun clause. İlk boşluğa past tense bir eylem gelirse, ikinci boşluk da past olmalı. "Entire history of human race" henüz sona ermediğine göre, bu kişi şu an konuşuyor olsa "Entire history of human race has been marked by ..." derdi. A seçeneği, bu tümcenin aktarım (= reported) hali.

  1. The advance in the steel industry has been marked by a progressive increase in size, complexity and capital outlay.

Tümcenin yüklemi edilgen. Bu durumda ilk aranacak sözcük by olmalı. Yanıt D. increase + in yapısı 6. soruda da geçmekte.

  1. The answer to the question whether great art can exist independently of religion will, to a large extent depends on society's moral and aesthetic values.

Tümcenin ana yüklemi depends on. "The answer to the question" bölümünden sonra gelen bölümün, bu sorunun ne olduğunu açıklaması gerekir. Bu durumda da ilk boşluğa gelecek sözcük bir soru sözcüğü olmalı. Bir tek A (what) ve C (whether) soru sözcükleri taşımakta. Bunun ardından anlam açısından bir niceleme yapılması gerekir. Yanıt C.

  1. Thailand has lost half of its forests as its population has more than doubled in recent decades.

İlk boşluktan sonra bir tümce gelmekte. Bu durumda C ve E elenir (so as + to, because of + noun/-ing). D seçeneği anlamsal olarak yanlış, bir koşul durumu yok. En yakın çeldirici olan B seçeneği tümceye yerleştirilirse ikinci boşluğa gelen mostly sözcüğü ile doubled sözcüğü uyuşmamakta, çünkü mostly = often. Yanıt A. (as = because / when)

  1. Holding a yellow umbrella in his hand he said he didn't know whose it was, and added that it was not his .

Şemsiyenin sahibi soruşturuluyor. Yanıt B.

  1. The Deputy Prime Minister announced today that it was as yet too early to propose amendments in the legislation concerning industrial relations.

too + adj./adv. + to + V. Yanıt E.

  1. Activists are these in a political movement who insist on taking active steps towards their objectives, rather than merely putting forward an action programme.

Seçenekleri eleyerek gitmek en iyisi. Boşluktan sonra Ving gelmekte; burada insist on taking .... (insist on) putting yapısı mevcut. A seçeneğinde to + V gerekir. C seçeneğinde as far as + tümce. D seçeneğinde in that + tümce. E seçeneğinde so long as + tümce. Yanıt B.

  1. If our delegates hadn't shown themselves willing to come to terms, those from other countries wouldn't have, either.

Third condition. Yan tümcenin yüklemi olumsuz olduğu için en yakın çeldirici olan E seçeneğindeki too yanlış. Yanıt B.

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وَلَنَبْلُوَنَّكُمْ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنَ الْخَوفْ وَالْجُوعِ وَنَقْصٍ مِّنَ الأَمَوَالِ وَالأنفُسِ وَالثَّمَرَاتِ وَبَشِّرِ الصَّابِرِينَ الَّذِينَ إِذَا أَصَابَتْهُم مُّصِيبَةٌ قَالُواْ إِنَّا لِلّهِ وَإِنَّـا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعونَ

Muhakkak ki biz sizi korkuyla, açlıkla ve mallardan, canlardan ve ürünlerden eksiltme ile imtihan edeceğiz. O sabredenleri müjdele! Onlar ki, başlarına bir musibet geldiği zaman: “Biz Allah’a aidiz ve sonunda O’na döneceğiz.” derler. (Bakara 155-156)

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