EĞİTİM BOLUMU

Kpds Dersleri

ADVERBIAL CLAUSE

 

Dilbilgisi Açıklamaları 

ADVERBIAL CLAUSE

TIME CLAUSE

1. TANIM

Time Clause yapılarda zaman uyumu kuralına dikkat etmek gerekir. Bu tümcelerde, ana tümce ile yan tümcede kullanılan tense uyumlu olmalıdır. Yani,

PRESENT« PRESENT
I never forget to pray before I go to bed.
PRESENT«FUTURE
She will be there when I arrive at the airport.
PAST«PAST
When we got there, the film was over.

Time Clause yapılarda zaman uyumu kuralına bir tek since uymamaktadır.

PRESENT« PAST
I have known him since I left school.

2. TIME BEFORE

2.1. Until/Till
 

KULLANIMI
until/till + ad / tümce / Ving

ÇEVİRİSİ
yüklem + -EnE / -IncEyE kadar [1]
ad + -E kadar [2] 

He worked patiently until he completed polishing. [1]

 

 Cilalamayı tamamlayana kadar sabırla çalıştı.

Until the war, they didn't know any poverty. [2]

 

 

Until ve by sözcüklerinden hangisinin kullanılacağı konusu çeviri ya da İngilizce yazma/konuşma esnasında bir tereddüt konusu olabilmektedir.

Until belirli bir zamana kadar süren bir olay ya da durum için kullanılır.

I have to keep writing until the end of next year.

 

 

 By belirli bir zamanda ya da o zamandan önce oluşan bir olay için kullanılır.

My book will be finished by the end of next year.

 

 

Burada belirtilmesi gereken önemli bir nokta da, by sözcüğünün zaman yapılarında bu tür kullanımında hiçbir zaman bir conjunction olarak kullanılamaması, yani, ardından bir S+V+(O) yapısının gelememesidir.

I hadn't liked Spielberg's films ..... I watched his masterpiece "ET".

A. after
B. by the time
C. in case
D. until
E. while

The sailors decided that it was better to wait ..... .

A. as they have heard the weather forecast.
B. by the time the mist settles
C. since the time the weather conditions changed
D. until the sea was calmer
E. whether their boat is thoroughly ready for sail

2.2. Before
 

KULLANIMI
before + ad / tümce / Ving

ÇEVİRİSİ 
yüklem + -mEdEn önce 
yüklem + -DEn önce 

They left before the door was opened.

 

 

Before the geological age of a fossil can be established, ......

A. theory of evolution was not fully understood
B. movements within the earth's crust have been measured
C. the necessary equipment has been provided
D. the measurements were not sufficiently accurate
E. the evolutionary significance of the remains must be fully understood

2.3. By the time
 

KULLANIMI 
by the time + tümce 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
yüklem + -EnE kadar 

They will have gone by the time we arrive.

 

 

 Kullanım özelliği:
 

ð

by the time + present tense, future perfect (continuous)
by the time + simple past, past perfect (continuous)

By the time something ..... to save them, whales ..... extinct before it is too late.

A. had done/would have gone
B. has been done/will go
C. is done/will have gone
D. was done/had gone
E. will be done/have gone

By ile by the time farkı:
 

ð

by + tümce

3. SAME TIME

3.1. As
 

KULLANIMI 
(just) as + tümce 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
(tam) ... -(i)ken 

As she was walking down the road, she was hit by a lorry.

 

 

3.2. As long as / So long as
 

KULLANIMI 
as long as/so long as + tümce 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
yüklem + -DIğI sürece/müddetçe 

I'll love you as long as I live.

 

 

 

3.3. While/Whilst

Bu sözcüklerden whilst çok resmi yapılarda kullanılabilir.
 

KULLANIMI 
while / whilst + tümce [1] / Ving [2] 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
yüklem + -(i)ken 

They came while I was sunbathing. [1]

 

 

While walking, he stumbled and fell. [2]

 

 

 

The secretary took notes ..... I explained her how to use the new software.

A. before
B. by the time
C. in case
D. though
E. while

3.4. When / Whenever
 

KULLANIMI 
when + tümce [1] / sıfat [2] / Ving [3]; whenever + tümce [4] / sıfat [5] 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
(her ne) zaman ... -sE 
yüklem + - DIğI zaman/-E/Ir(i)ken/-DIğI(n)dE/-IncE/ -DIkçE 

When I sleep I always snore. [1]

 

 

Please do your exercise when(ever) possible. [2]

 

 

Be careful when lifting this bag. [3]

 

 

She visits her parents whenever she finds time. [4]

 

 

 

When I last ..... Peter he ..... to be transfered to the firm's new factory.

A. was seeing/had hoped
B. have seen/hoped
C. saw/would hope
D. saw/was hoping
E. see/will hope

Dikkat:
 

ð

Yan tümcede present perfect tense mümkündür.

When I ..... my last exam I ..... for, I plan to have a long holiday.

A. had taken/studied
B. have taken/have been studying
C. take/study
D. took/had been studying
E. will take/am studying

3.5. Now that
 

KULLANIMI 
now that + tümce 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
-DIğI için 
(Hazır) ... yüklem -DIğI [(n)E] göre 

Now that everybody is here, we can start the meeting.

 

 

3.6. Ving

He came in shouting.

 

 

Bu yapıya benzer bir yapıda hiç yüklem kullanılmamaktadır:

He came in drunk. (= When he came in he was drunk.)

3.7. During
 

KULLANIMI 
during + ad 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
esnasında 

During the storm, a lot of people hid in the cinema.

 

 

4. TIME AFTER

4.1. After
 

KULLANIMI 
after + tümce [1] / Ving [2] / ad [3] 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
yüklem/ad + -DEn/(mEsIn)In ardından/sonra 

After he had seen the murder, he couldn't sleep whole night. [1]

 

 

After finishing his meal, Peter went to bed. [2]

 

 

After the riot, everything is calm and quiet. [3]

 

 

 

You will be responsible for the whole project ..... I've left, so now listen carefully!

A. after
B. during
C. for
D. since
E. while

4.2. As soon as
 

KULLANIMI 
as soon as + tümce [1] / Ving [2] 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
yüklem + -Er yüklem + -mEz 

As soon as she saw the poster, she burst out a laughter. [1]

 

 

As soon as leaving work, he rushes to the bar. [2]

 

 

Bir eş anlam:

ð

as soon as = the minute

4.3. Directly/Immediately

Bu iki yapı da sık kullanılmaz.
 

KULLANIMI 
directly / immediately + tümce 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
yüklem + -Er yüklem + -mEz 

She smiled immediately she heard the news.

 

 

İki eş anlam:

ð

directly / immediately = the moment / the minute

4.4. Once
 

KULLANIMI 
once + tümce [1] / Ving [2] 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
Bir kez .. yüklem + -DI mI/-mEyE gör- 

Once I make up my mind, nothing can stop me. [1]

 

 

Once signing this contract, you will have to obey the rules. [2]

 

 

4.5. Since
 

KULLANIMI 
since + tümce [1] / Ving [2] / ad [3] 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
yüklem + -Den beri/bu yana 

He feels much better since he completed his exams. [1]

 

 

We haven't gone out since visiting you. [2]

 

 

I've been typing since 12. [3]

 

 

 

I haven't had a single accident ..... I got my driving license almost ten years ago.

A. after
B. as
C. before
D. for
E. since

Present perfect konusunda da belirtildiği gibi ...

ð

since + simple past

4.6. When / Whenever

Kullanım ve çeviri açısından yukarıda Same time başlığı altında ele alınan when / whenever ile aynıdır.

4.7. Now that

Kullanım ve çeviri açısından yukarıda Same time başlığı altında ele alınan now that ile aynıdır.

4.8. No sooner ... than
 

KULLANIM 
No sooner + had + Subject + V3 + than ..+ Simple Past 

ÇEVİRİ 
Daha yeni/Henüz ... yüklem + -mIştI ki ... 

No sooner had he left than he heard the explosion.

 

 

Çok önemli özellikler:

ð

No sooner + had + özne + V3 + than ..+ simple past 
No sooner ... yapısında mutlaka than kullanılır. 
No sooner ... yapısının tümce başında yer alması durumunda, mutlaka devrik yapı kullanılır.

4.9. Hardly / Scarcely ... when

Kullanım ve çeviri açısından No sooner ... than yapısı ile aynıdır.

Çok önemli özellikler:
 

ð

Hardly/Scarcely + had + özne + V3 + when ..+ simple past
Hardly/scarcely yapısında mutlaka when kullanılır. 
Hardly/Scarcely yapısının tümce başında yer alması durumunda, mutlaka devrik yapı kullanılır.

4.10. On, upon

Ving başlığı altında (aşağıda 5 numaralı başlık) ele alınmaktadır.

4.11. (only) to ...

Geçici bir durumu göstermek ve durumun ortaya çıkardığı sonucu ifade etmek için kullanılır.

I rushed to the door to discover it was locked

tümcesinde to discover yapısı in order to discover anlamı taşımamaktadır, zira bu anlamı taşıyor olsa kapının kilitli olduğunu bile bile kapıya gitme söz konusu olacaktır.

* Kapının kilitli olduğunu keşfetmek için kapıya koştum.

Bu yapının gerçek karşılığı

... to discover = and I discovered

yaklaşımı ile

Kapıya koştum ve kilitli olduğunu farkettim

şeklinde olacaktır.

I woke up one morning to find myself on the floor.

 

 

She turned the corner, to find the car gone.

 

 

The curtain parted, to reveal a market scene.

 

 

4.12. yüklem + to + yüklem

Aslında yüklem + and + yüklem şeklinde kullanılabilecek bir yapıdır ve uzunca bir süreye bağlı bir sonucu ifade eder.

She lived to be 100. (= and she became 100.)

 

 

The show went on to become a great success.

 

 

5. Ving

5.1. Same time (= When)

Returning to the village, I met an old friend.

 

 

(On/Upon) receiving the letter, you should reply immediately.

 

 

Dikkat:

ð

Ving yapısı ile time ve reason anlatıldığı zaman, ana tümcenin ve yan tümcenin öznesinin aynı olması gerekir.

When I returned to the village, I met an old friend. (= Returning to the village, I met an old friend.)

..... us that the flat was in perfect condition, the estate agent asked us if we would like to see the flat.

A. Tell
B. Telling
C. To be told
D. To tell
E. Told
 

The applicants, ..... for the interview all morning, looked very bored when they were finally allowed in.

A. being waited
B. having waited
C. to have waited
D. waited
E. waiting

5.2. Time after (= When / After)

Having + V3 ya da -ing yapısı ile oluşturulur.

Having completed his study he submitted it to the committee. (= After he had completed ...)

 

 

5.3. (By) + Ving

Bu yapı zaman belirtmesinin yanısıra neden de (= reason) belirtebilir.

By taking advantage of the darkness, he escaped.

 

 

5.4. ..., Ving

He rose to his feet, spilling coffee on his pants. (= When he was rising to his feet, he spilt coffee on his pants.)

 

 

6. PAST PARTICIPLE (= V3)

Çok önemli özellikler:
 

ð

Edilgen özellik taşır. 

Past Participle ile time ve reason anlatıldığı zaman, ana tümcenin ve yan tümcenin öznesinin aynı olması gerekir.

(When it is) taken as it is, the sentence will mean nothing.

 

 

CONDITION CLAUSE

1. IF

1.1. First condition

Şu an ya da geleceğe ait gerçekleşmesi mümkün olasılık anlatır.
 

KULLANIMI 
If + Present, Future / Present tense 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
(Eğer) ... -I/Er ise, -EcEk / -I/Er 

If nothing is done about high rate of population growth, world population will have doubled by the year 2005.

 

 

DEVRİK YAPI

Should you see her, give her the message.

 

 


 

 
If you ..... to a doctor straight away as I advise, you ..... a great deal of discomfort.

A. would go/would have been spared
B. have gone/were spared
C. had gone/would have been spared
D. were going/have been spared
E. go/will have been spared

If ile başlayan bölüm (= yan tümce) ile ilgili önemli bir not:
 

ð

If + will / may / might ... , ....

1.2. Second Condition

Şu an ya da geleceğe ait gerçekleşmesi pek mümkün olmayan olasılık anlatır.
 

KULLANIMI 
If + Simple past, could / would (be able to) / might 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
(Eğer) ... -sE(ydI), ... -I/ErdI 

If you were a man, I'd slap you here and now.

 

 

DEVRİK YAPI

Were you a man, I'd slap you here and now.

 
Would you accept the offer if you ..... in my shoes.

A. are
B. can be
C. were
D. had been
E. should be

Was yerine were kullanımı önem taşır:
 

ð

If I / she / you / it / they / ... WERE ....

Ayrıca şu yapılara dikkat:

Would you mind ...?
Do you mind ... ? 

 
Kim: I urgently need an envelope for this card.
Tom: Do you mind if I go and buy you one?
Kim: .....
Tom: I'll be back in a minute.

A. Yes, and buy a pen as well, please.
B. Yes, this would be lovely.
C. No, not at all; most appreciated.
D. I'd better have an envelope immediately.
E. Actually, what I need is that one.

Progressive / Continuous kullanıma dikkat:
 

ð

 Would be + Ving è Second Condition

She must be earning a lot. Otherwise, she ..... such a luxurious life.

A. couldn't have led
B. hasn't been leading
C. isn't leading
D. wasn't leading
E. wouldn't be leading

1.3. Third Condition

Geçmişe ait ve gerçekleşmesi artık mümkün olmayan olasılık anlatır.
 

KULLANIMI 
A. If + Past Perfect, would /could / might + have + V3 [1] 
B. If + Past Perfect, would / could / might + V1 + (now) [2] 
C. If + would / could + have + V3, would / could / might + have + V3 [3] 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
A. 
(Eğer) -sEydi /-mIş olsaydı, ... -I/ErdI 

If he had known the result he wouldn't have been so happy. [1]

 

 

 

B. 
(Eğer) -sEydi /-mIş olsaydı, (şimdi) ... -I/ErdI 

If you had been more careful, you'd be earning more. [2]

 

 

 

C. 
(Eğer) -sEydi /-mIş olsaydı, ... -EbIlIrdI 

I could have helped him if I could have swum. [3]

 

 


 

DEVRİK YAPI

Had he been more careful, he could have won.

 

 

 

If I ..... you were coming I ..... you a lift.

A. knew/can give
B. know/have given
C. had known/could have given
D. have known/gave
E. will know/would give

1.4. If + should

Az gerçekleşme olasılığı gösterir.

If you should see him, let me know.

 

 

1.5. If + happen to

If + should yapısı ile aynı anlamdadır.

1.6. If + were to

Were to yapısı gelecekte gerçekleşme olasılığı az bir olayı anlatmada kullanılabilir.

What would you do if a war were to break out ?

 

 

Were to yapısı zorlayıcı bir öneri ifade edebilir.

If you were to move your chair a bit, we could all sit down comfortably.

 

 

 

If Turkey ..... to withdraw from the NATO alliance, certainly it ..... a global crisis.

A. had/will cause
B. was/would have caused
C. will have/causes
D. were/would cause
E. would have/had caused

1.7. If it weren't for

Bu yapı olayın bir başka olayı değiştirdiğini / etkilediğini göstermede "olmasa" anlamında kullanılır.

If it weren't for his wife's money, he'd never be a boss.

 

 

1.8. If it hadn't been for

If it weren't for yapısının geçmiş zaman halidir.

If it hadn't been for your help, she could have gone to prison.

 

 

1.9. But for

If it hadn't been for yapısı ile aynı anlamı taşır.

But for you, I could have given up long ago.

 

 

1.10. If only (= I wish ...)

A) If only + Past tense

If only I had more money, I could buy a drink.

 

 

If only you hadn't told Jackie the truth, everything would have been all right.

 

 

B) If only + would / could

Bu yapı istek / amaç belirtir.

If only she wouldn't speak all the time, she'd make a perfect guest.

 

 

If only he wouldn't snore !

 

 

 

If only we ..... more money on us, we wouldn't have got so embarrassed at the supermarket.

A. had taken
B. have taken
C. took
D. would have taken
E. would take

If only you ..... in my affairs that much! I really don't want to offend you.

A. don't interfere
B. hadn't interfered
C. haven't interfered
D. won't interfere
E. wouldn't interfere

2. AS LONG AS, SO LONG AS
 

KULLANIMI 
as long as, so long as + tümce 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
- DIğI sürece/takdirde 

She can come in as long as she promises to keep silent.

 

 

 
You can leave the room ..... you promise to tidy your things.

A. unless
B. as long as
C. although
D. however
E. before

3. ASSUMING, PROVIDED, PROVIDING, SUPPOSING
 

KULLANIMI 
assuming/provided/providing/supposing + (that) + tümce 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
Assuming/supposing -DIğInI varsayarsak/varsayınca 
Provided/providing -mEsI koşulu ile/-DIğI takdirde 

Assuming that the journey is likely to take a full day, we may except him any minute.

 

 

You can borrow the car provided that you promise to drive carefully.

 

 

 

You can use my computer ..... you are careful with it.

A. as much as
B. even if
C. expecting
D. in case
E. providing

4. IN CASE
 

KULLANIMI 
in case + tümce 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
-sE diye 

Buy another bottle of vodka in case more people come.

 

 

 

We should have the car checked before we set out for our holiday ..... something goes wrong.

A. although
B. before
C. by the time
D. in case
E. while

Bu yapı in (the) case of + ad/Ving ( ... "durumunda") şeklinde de kullanılabilir.

In case of a fire, use the side doors.

 

 

In case of meeting him, do not offer to shake hands.

 

 

Just in case kullanımı ise "ne olur ne olmaz" anlamını yansıtır.

"Why do you always carry that umbrella ?" "Just in case."

5. IN THE EVENT THAT, JUST SO (THAT), ON CONDITION (THAT)
 

KULLANIMI 
in the event that + tümce 
just so (that) + tümce 
on condition (that) + tümce 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
-mEsI durumunda/-DIğI takdirde 

In the event that the police ask you your address, you are not legally bound to give it.

 

 

6. UNLESS
 

KULLANIMI 
unless + tümce 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
-mEz ise/-mEmEsI durumunda 

I'll quit unless I'm given a pay rise.

 

 

 

This boy of yours will be very spoilt ..... you stop treating him as if he were a baby.

A. as though
B. if
C. in case
D. unless
E. when

7. GIVEN
 

KULLANIMI 
given (that) + tümce 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
olsa, -mEsI durumunda 

Given that x = y, then n(x+a) = n(y+a) must also be true.

 

 

Given yapısı "rağmen" anlamını taşıyan tümce (Concession Clause) olarak da kullanılabilir.

8. WISH

Dilek belirten bir yapı olarak I wish / He wishes / .. çeşitli zamanlarla birlikte kullanılabilir. Bu zamanın seçimi elbette tümcenin oluşturulduğu duruma bağlıdır.

(Simple Present)
I'm not rich. I wish I was/were rich.
I don't earn a lot. I wish I earned a lot.
She talks a lot. I wish she didn't talk a lot.

(Present Continuous)
It's raining. I wish it wasn't/weren't rainining.
She is studying. I wish she wasn't/weren't studying.

(Simple Past)
She didn't come. I wish she had come.

(Present Perfect)
He has lost it. He wishes he hadn't lost it.

(Will)
You will always complain! I wish you wouldn't complain.
He will sing all the time! I wish he wouldn't sing.

ð

wish + simple past / past continuous / would / could = Second condition

wish + past perfect = Third condition

 
I wish they ..... to the party with us tomorrow.

A. can come
B. com
C. could come
D. had come
E. would have come

I wish nobody ..... of hunger in our present day.

A. is dying
B. died
C. dies
D. had died
E. has died

Bu yapılar Türkçeye "keşke" olarak aktarılabilir.

PLACE CLAUSE

1. WHERE
 

KULLANIMI 
where + tümce 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
yüklem + -DIğI yerde 

Where I come from, this is called injustice.

 

 

2. WHEREVER
 

KULLANIMI 
wherever + tümce 

ÇEVİRİSİ
(neresi olursa orada) 
yüklem + -DIğI her yer(d)e/yerin 

They went wherever they expected to find work.

 

 

CONCESSION CLAUSE

1. TÜMCE İLE KULLANILANLAR

1.1. Although / Though

yüklem + -mEsInE rağmen / karşın; -DIğI halde

Although he is young, he is not inexperienced.

 

 

Devrik yapı ile de kullanılabilir.

Careful though/as she was, she couldn't prevent the accident. (=Although she was ...)

 

 

Although ve though farkı:

ð

Though, tümce içinde ve sonunda however anlamında kullanılabilir.

1.2. Even if / Even though

Türkçeye çevirisi although ile aynıdır. Even if "-sE bile" olarak aktarılabilir.

He borrowed my jacket even though I'd told him not to.

 

 

You have to be on time even if the lesson starts very early.

 

 

1.3. Whereas

Türkçeye although gibi ya da "... ise de", "... iken" ile aktarılır.

Whereas he has plenty of money, he has no-one to trust.

 

 

1.4. While / Whilst

Türkçeye although gibi aktarılır.

While he is quite nice, sometimes he is a menace.

 

 

1.5. Despite / In spite of / Regardless of / Notwithstanding / Irrespective of + the fact that

Türkçeye "...( gerçeğin)e karşın / rağmen" ile aktarılırlar.

Despite the fact that he is rather nice, sometimes he is a menace. (=Although he is ...)

1.6. As

Devrik yapı durumunda "rağmen" anlamı taşıyabilir.

Tired as I was, I went on walking. (=Although I was tired ...)

 

 

Change your mind as you will, you will gain no support. (=Although you may change ...)

 

 

Bu yapı Reason veya Similarity Clause olarak da kullanılabilir.

As sözcüğü yerine that kullanıldığı da görülür.

Fool that he was, he made no mistakes.

 

 

1.7. As ... as

Bu yapı ender olarak kullanılır.

As widespread as his fame may be, he is not well-known in this part of the country. (=Although his fame may be widespread, ...)

 

 

2. TÜMCE İLE KULLANILMAYANLAR

2.1. Despite/In spite of
 

KULLANIMI 
despite/in spite of + ad [1] / Ving [2] 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
yüklem + -mEsInE rağmen / karşın 
ad + -E rağmen / karşın 

He came in spite of his illness. [1] / being ill. [2]

 

 

 

He still chooses to play with his plastic toy gun despite the many electric toys he has.

A. Although he has many electric toys, he prefers to play with his plactic toy gun.
B. Due to the number of his toys, he's having difficulty in choosing between his plastic toy and electric toys.
C. He has electric toys as well, but today he is playing with his plastic toy gun.
D. He may choose to play with his plastic toy gun, but his favourite is his electric toy.
E. In spite of playing with his plastic toy gun, he still has some electric toys as well.

2.2. Irrespective of, Regardless of, Notwithstanding
 

KULLANIMI 
irrespective of / regardless of / notwithstanding + ad / WH 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
ad + -E rağmen / karşın 
yüklem + -mEsInE rağmen / karşın 
göz önüne almaksızın 

Regardless of whatever he may say, do it as you please.

 

 

2.3. ..., still / yet
 

KULLANIMI 
..., still/yet + Ving [1] / tümce [2] 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
yine de, ancak, fakat, bun(lar)a karşın 

He suffered a lot, yet never giving in. [1] / he never gave in. [2]

 

 

3. Given (that)

Yerine göre koşul anlamı da verebilen bu yapı pek sık kullanılmamaktadır.

Given her charm, she is alone. / Given that she has charm, she is alone.

 

 

4. For all

For all his efforts, he failed.

 

 

Aşağıdaki farklı kullanıma dikkat:

ð

For all + tümce = as far as

CONTRAST CLAUSE

Dilbilgisi kitaplarında ayrı bir başlık altında yer alsa da yapı olarak Concession Clause ile aynıdır. Whereas, while, whilst ile oluşturulur ve Türkçeye en basit olarak "oysa" sözcüğü ile aktarılır.

REASON CLAUSE

1. TÜMCE İLE KULLANILANLAR

1.1. Because, As, For, Since

Türkçeye "yüklem + -I için / -IndEn ötürü / dolayı", "yüklem + -mEsI nedeniyle / sebebiyle" şeklinde aktarılırlar.

Because he worked so hard, he deserved a holiday.

 

 

As sözcüğü devrik yapıda kullanılarak da Reason Clause oluşturabilir. Aynı yapı Concession Clause için de geçerli olduğu için hangi anlamın çıkarılması gerektiğine dikkat edilmesi gerekir.

Tired as she was, she went on walking. [Concession]

Tired as she was, she stopped walking. [Reason]

 

 

 

..... the prices are very high, I have to find a second job to make ends meet.

A. Even though
B. In spite of
C. Unless
D. Because
E. Even if

I reckon he'll be a great asset to the firm, ..... he really does have a good eye for business.

A. although
B. for
C. therefore
D. lest
E. thus

1.2. Because of / Due to / Owing to / On account of + the fact that

Türkçeye "[gerçeği(nden)] ötürü / yüzünden / sayesinde" şeklinde aktarılırlar.

Owing to the fact that Tom didn't know any French, they were able to speak comfortably in his presence.

 

 

 

..... a heavy rain, the game had to be stopped.

A. Because
B. Owing to
C. Regardless of
D. In spite of
E. Provided

1.3. As long as
 

KULLANIMI 
as long as + tümce 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
- DIğI sürece / müddetçe 

As long as he doesn't disturb me, it is okay.

 

 

1.4. Inasmuch as, Insomuch as

Because anlamı taşıyan bu yapılar resmi durumlarda kullanılır.

Thomas is also guilty, insomuch as he knew what they were going to do.( ..., because he knew ...)

 

 

1.5. In that
 

KULLANIMI 
in that + tümce 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
-mEsI açısından/yüzünden, -DIğI için 

The evidence is invalid in that it was obtained through illegal ways.

 

 

1.6. Now that

Time Clause yapılarda ele alınan Now that ile aynı anlamı taşır.

1.7. (The reason) why
 

KULLANIMI 
(The reason) why + tümce + be + because/that ... 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
-mE("kişi eki")In(In) nedeni/sebebi ... (-dIr) 

The reason (why) they lost is that/because they did not know the rules.

 

 

 

She won't tell me the reason ..... she is leaving me!

A. how
B. when
C. which
D. whom
E. why

1.8. While
 

KULLANIMI 
while + tümce 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
hazır ... olduğuna göre/-mIş iken 

While you are in the kitchen, can you bring me a knife ?

 

 

2. TÜMCE İLE KULLANILMAYANLAR

2.1. Because of, Due to, Owing to, On account of
 

KULLANIMI 
because of / due to + owing to + on account of + ad  + (Ving) [1] / + my / his /.. + Ving [2] 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
Türkçeye because ile aynı şekilde aktarılırlar. 

Because of rain the rescue operation had to be stopped. [1]

 

 

Owing to his trying to save the situation, a scandal was prevented. [2]

 

 

2.2. Ving ...,

Önemli bir özellik:

ð

Ving ile time ve reason anlatıldığı zaman, ana tümcenin ve yan tümcenin öznesinin aynı olması gerekir.

 
In any election campaign, we see that all the candidates promise to bring all essential facilities to the area, ......

A. bearing in mind the fact that it has a potential vote population
B. in that they were quite successful in bringing service
C. that has always been neglected by local politicians
D. which actually needed almost nothing other than a sewage system
E. whose political career depends on the leading party's policies


Seeing that it was likely to rain, he stayed in. (=Because / When he saw ...)

 

 

Knowing their tastes, she was able to bring a good gift. (=Because she knew ...)

 

 

Having completed the task, they had a break. (=Because / After they had completed ...)

 

 

2.3. Past participle (= V3)

Önemli özellikler:

ð

Bu yapı edilgen özellik taşır. 

Past Participle ile time ve reason anlatıldığı zaman, ana tümcenin ve yan tümcenin öznesinin aynı olması gerekir.

 
Constructed according to my specifications, the building was able to withstand the earthquake. (=Because it was constructed ...)

 

 

2.4. With
 

KULLANIMI 
with + ad + Ving [1] 
with + ad + to + yüklem [2] 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
"var iken", -mekte iken, -DIğI için, -DIğIndEn ötürü 

With the exams coming, we have no time for a social life. [1]

 

 

With so many children to support, they both have to work. [2]

 

 

2.5. What with

Yukarıda ele alınan With yapısı ile aynıdır.

PURPOSE CLAUSE

1. (In order) to, so as to
 

KULLANIMI 
in order (not) to / so as (not) to + yüklem 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
yüklem + -mEk için 

To open the lid, turn it left.

 

 

They left the door open in order for me to hear what they were talking about.

 

 

She has to hurry in order not to be late.

 

 

So as to yapısının aşağıdaki örnekte görülen kullanımına sık rastlanmaktadır.

He never stayed in one place so long as to be recognised.

 

 

 

He has been studying ..... fail again.

A. to
B. because of
C. in order not to
D. in spite of
E. even if

2. In order that
 

KULLANIMI 
in order that + tümce 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
yüklem + -sIn diye / -mEk için 

The school closes early in order that the children can get home before dark.

 

 

3. For fear that
 

KULLANIMI 
for fear that + tümce 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
yüklem + -mEk /... olur + korkusu ile 

They left early for fear that they'd miss the train.

 

 

4. Lest

Resmi (= formal) nitelik taşıyan tümcelerde kullanılır.
 

KULLANIMI 
lest + tümce 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
yüklem + -mEmEk için / -mEsIn diye 

They checked the list again lest they should leave something behind.

 

 

RESULT CLAUSE

1. So (that), Such that
 

KULLANIMI 
so (that), such that + tümce 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
böylece, bu yolla, öyle ki, -sIn diye 

We announced the test results immediately so that those who failed wouldn't have to wait.

 

 

They had considered all the possibilities in preparing the leaflet, such that even the most inexperienced would be able to inform the candidates of the requirements for application.

 

 

Çok önemli bir özellik:

ð

So that ile oluşturulan yan tümcede hemen her zaman bir yardımcı yüklem olur.

2. Thereby
 

KULLANIMI 
thereby + Ving

ÇEVİRİSİ 
böylece, bu yüzden, bu yolla, sonuçta 

Because he was so young and fiery, he drove the sport car at top speed, thereby deserving three different traffic tickets.

 

 

SIMILARITY CLAUSE

1. (Just) as
 

KULLANIMI 
(just) as + tümce [1] / it is/was/.. [2] 
Kimi zaman as yerine the way kullanılabilir. 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
gibi

She is a fine singer, just as her father used to be. [1]

 

 

In autumn, as (it was) in spring, there were floods. [2]

 

 

Bu yapı resmi (= formal) nitelik taşıyan anlatımlarda devrik yapı (= inversion) kullanılarak oluşturulabilir.

He was Catholic, as were most of his friends.

 

 

He believed, as did all his colleagues, in the supremacy of the institution he worked for.

 

 

 
..... it was expected, Peter won the game.

A. The same
B. As
C. Likewise
D. Similar
E. Contrary

Dikkat edilmesi gereken kullanımlar:
 

ð

be that as it may = öyle oldu ki

such ... as

 
I had never had ..... terrible time ..... I had in that seaside hotel.

A. as / than
B. so / that
C. more / that
D. such / as
E. the most / as

2. Like
 

KULLANIMI 
like + ad / him/her/... ; like + tümce ( AmE) 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
gibi, benzer 

My sister isn't much like me.

 

 

 

Many tropical climate animals are facing the danger of extinction, ..... the panda.

A. as
B. as if
C. even if
D. like
E. similar

As ve like farkı:

ð

as =olarak

like = gibi

 
I gave her a ring ..... a birthday present.

A. like
B. as
C. as if
D. such as
E. that

3. As if, as though
 

KULLANIMI 
as if, as though + tümce 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
(sanki) ... (-mIş) gibi 

You look as if you are about to cry.

 

 

 

We know that it may be wrong to treat a child as if he ..... an adult.

A. had been
B. has been
C. is
D. were
E. will be
 

As soon as I entered the room, I noticed that it looked ..... it hadn't been lived in for a very long time.

A. although
B. though
C. because
D. even if
E. in case

EXCEPTION CLAUSE

1. But (that)

Resmi (= formal) nitelik taşıyan anlatımlarda kullanılır.
 

KULLANIM 
but that + tümce [1] 
but for me/him/.. to + yüklem [2] 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
dışında, haricinde 

Nothing would stop them but that the President (should) make a speech. [1]

 

 

Nothing would stop them but for the President to make a speech. [2]

 

 

2. Except (that), excepting (that)
 

KULLANIMI 
except/excepting (that) + tümce 

ÇEVİRİSİ 
ama, fakat, ancak, haricinde, dışında 

We would most happily help you, except we are in need of cash.

 

 

3. Save that
 

KULLANIMI 
save that + tümce 

ÇEVİRİSİ
dışında, haricinde 

The company has lost almost all its possessions, save that they still hold a small share in a vast piece of land.

 

 

4. Only

Günlük konuşma dilinde kullanılır.
 

KULLANIMI 

only + tümce 

 

ÇEVİRİSİ 

fakat, ancak, ama 

I'd love to come, only I have no time.

 

 

COMMENT CLAUSE

1. Tanım

Tümce içinde paranteze alınmış bir fikir, yorum, yargı görevi üstlenen ifadelerdir. Tümce içinde altı değişik yapıda kullanılabilirler.

2. Tümce olarak

There were no applicants, I believe, for that job.

En sık kullanılan yapılar şunlardır.

God knows 

Tanrı bilir (ya)

Heaven knows 

Tanrı bilir (ya)

it grieves me to tell you 

üzülerek söylüyorum

it has been claimed 

iddiaya göre

it is reported 

bildirildiğine göre

it is rumoured 

söylentiye göre

it is said 

denildiğine göre/ denir ki

it is true 

şurası da doğru ki/ doğru olan şu ki

it may interest you to know 

öğrenmek ilgini(zi) çekebilir

it pains me to tell you 

üzülerek söylüyorum

it seems 

görünüşe göre, görünüşe bakılırsa

it transpires 

söylenildiğine göre

I admit 

bence de/ kabul ediyorum

I agree 

bence de/ kabul ediyorum

I ask myself 

diye sormaktayım

I assume 

sanırım

I believe 

bence/ sanırım

I can see 

gördüğüm kadarı ile

I claim 

bence

I consider 

bence

I daresay 

sanırım

I don't deny 

kabul

I doubt 

hiçsanmam ama/ pek sanmasam da/ korkarım

I expect 

umarım

I fear 

korkarım

I feel 

bence

I guess 

sanırım

I hear 

duyduğuma göre

I have heard 

duyduğuma göre

I have heard tell 

söylenenlere göre

I have no doubt 

hiç kuşkum yok

I have read 

okuduğuma göre

I have to say 

belirtmeliyim ki

I hope 

umarım

I imagine 

sanırım

I know 

bildiğime göre/ biliyorum

I may assume 

sanırım

I'm afraid 

korkarım

I'm convinced 

eminim/ inanıyorum ki

I'm delighted to say 

sevinerek söylüyorum (ki)

I'm glad to say 

sevinerek söylüyorum (ki)

I'm happy to say 

sevinerek söylüyorum (ki)

I'm pleased to say 

sevinerek söylüyorum (ki)

I'm sorry to say 

üzülerek söylüyorum (ki)

I'm sure 

eminim

I'm told 

bana anlatılana göre/ duydum ki

I must admit 

kabul/ itiraf etmeliyim ki

I must say 

söylemem gerekir ki

I must tell you 

anlatmam gerekir ki

I presume 

sanırım

I regret 

korkarım/ ne yazık ki

I regret to say 

üzülerek söylüyorum (ki)

I remember 

hatırlıyorum (da)

I see 

bence

I suppose 

sanırım

I think 

bence

I understand 

anlıyorum ki/ bence

I venture to say 

diyebilirim ki

I wish 

umarım

I wonder 

acaba

mind you 

hatırlarsan(ız)

one hears 

söylenenlere göre

they allege 

iddiaya göre

they claim 

iddiaya göre

there is on doubt 

kuşkusuz

they say 

dediklerinegöre

you can see 

gördüğün(üz) gibi

you know 

biliyorsun(uz)

you may have heard 

duymuş olabileceğin(iz) gibi

you may know 

belki biliyorsun(uz)

you must admit 

kabul etmelisin(iz) ki

you realise 

anlayacağın(ız) gibi

you see 

gördüğün(üz) gibi

 

 

3. As + tümce

Türkçeye "yüklem + -DIğI gibi/kadarı ile" şeklinde aktarılabilir.

I'm working overtime, as you know.

En sık kullanılan yapılar şunlardır:

as everybody k

 

 

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Muhakkak ki biz sizi korkuyla, açlıkla ve mallardan, canlardan ve ürünlerden eksiltme ile imtihan edeceğiz. O sabredenleri müjdele! Onlar ki, başlarına bir musibet geldiği zaman: “Biz Allah’a aidiz ve sonunda O’na döneceğiz.” derler. (Bakara 155-156)

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Benzer Kpds Dersleri

ZAMAN KAVRAMI (=TENSE)
ADVERBIAL CLAUSE
MODAL VERB
Cümle Analizi
Paragraf Tamamlama
INFLATION